Faculty of Performance, Visual Arts and Communications

School of Music

CHASE

Ferdinand David

b. Hamburg 19 January (?June) 1810; d. Klosters, Switzerland 18 July 1873

Teachers

Louis Spohr (violin) 1823-25 

Moritz Hauptmann (theory) 1823-25

Family

Sister: Louise (Madam Dulcken) 

Son: Paul David 

Son-in-law: Julius Eckhardt 

Associates

Eduard Rietz 

Felix Mendelssohn

Fanny Mendelssohn 

Julius Rietz 

Niels Gade 

Bernhard Romberg 

Friedrich Grützmacher 

Friedrich Hermann

Moritz Klengel 

Rudolf Sachse 

Franz Brendel 

Ignaz Moscheles 

Biographer 

Julius Eckhardt (Ferdinand David und die Familie Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Leipzig, 1888) 

Professional appointments

Orchestral violinist, Königstadt Theater, Berlin, 1826-29 

Quartet leader in private employ of Karl von Liphart, Dorpat (Estonia), 1829-35 

Konzertmester, Gewandhaus Orchestra and Stadttheater, and director of church music, Leipzig, 1836-1873 

Head of violin department, Leipzig Conservatorium, 1843-73 

Other professional activities

Participant in domestic chamber music in Berlin, 1826-29 (with Eduard Rietz, violin, Felix Mendelssohn, viola, and Julius Rietz, cello) 

Leader Dorpat Quartet 1829-35, with Karl Matthias Kudelski (violin), Franz Hartmann (viola), and Bernhard Romberg / Johann Benjamin Gross, (cello) 

Leader/member Gewandhaus Quartet/chamber ensemble 1836-73 

Between 1836 and 1866 more than 20 musicians played in the Gewandhaus Quartet led by David (or sometimes with David playing viola), most for only a few seasons. These include: 

1836-73 (1836: Wilhelm Carl Uhlrich (2 violin), Carl Traugott Queisser (viola), Johann Andreas Grabau (cello). 

1837-9: Moritz Gotthold Klengel (2 violin), Friedrich Wilhelm Genser (cello). 

1840: Moritz Gotthold Klengel (2 violin), Carl Eckert (viola), Carl Franz Wittmann (cello). 

1842 Hermann Otto Hunger (viola). 

1851 Raimund Dreischock, Engelbert Röntgen (violins)

1860 Friedrich Grützmacher (cello)

In addition there were the following:

Chr. W. Hilf J. Gulomy (violin), J. W. Kalliwoda, ? Schulz (viola), J. Griebel (cello),  J. G. Temmler, H. A. O. Backhaus (Contrabass), C. A. Genser (flute), J. Fr. Diethe (oboe), Fr. A. F. Heinze (clarinet), Fr. L. Weissenborn (bassoon), C. G. Pfau (horn)

Pianists included Felix Mendelssohn (as David’s duo partner 1836—47; he also played violin and viola), F. Kufferath, Ferdinand Hiller, Clara Schumann, Carl Reinecke, Anton Rubinstein, William Sterndale Bennett 

According to Paul David: ‘as a teacher his influence was probably greater than that of any preceding master.’ - Joseph Joachim (1842-3?) - Wilhelm von Wasiliewski - Friedrich Hermann - August Wilhelmj - Carl Courvoisier 

According to his son Paul David (Grove I, ): ‘As a virtuoso David combined the sterling qualities of Spohr’s style with the greater facility and piquancy of a later school.' La Mara (Musikalische Studienköpfe. Dritter Band: Jüngstvergangenheit und Gegenwart. (Leipzig, Heinrich Schmidt und Carl Günther, 1878, p. 61) was more explicit. He reported Wilhelmj's comment that after hearing Paganini, 

David wanted to give up violin playing,' and added: 'But to the benefit of art he did not carry out this intention; for in fact, as a result, his labours were epoch-making for the history of violin playing, in that while further developing the broad, so-called German playing style of Spohr, he sought to combine the old classical style of violin playing with the acquirements of a Paganini and of the Franco-Belgian school, and to move towards a melding of these. In such a manner he became a reformer, yes, as Wilhelmj designated him 'the father of the modern German violin school.' (zwar hatte er [...] das Violinspiel ganz aufgeben wollen. Doch ward er zum Heile der Kunst dieser Entschluss nicht zur That; denn geradezu epochmachend wurde sein Wirken für die Geschichte des Violinspiels dadurch, dass er das breite, sogennante deutsche Spiel Spohr's weiter ausbildend, die Errungenschaften eines Paganini und der französisch-belgischen Schule mit dem classischen alten Geigenspiele in Einklang zu bringen und eine Verschmelzung derselben anzubahnen suchte. Solchergestalt ward er zum Reformator, ja, wie Wilhelmj ihn bezeichnet, zum “Vater der modernen deutschen Geigerschule.”) 

As an Orchestra director, La Mara  noted (p. 59f)that 

The performance markings and additions in the individual orchestral parts that came from his hand, which aimed partly at a more precise ensemble from the strings and partly (as in the wind instruments) aimed to take account of the progress in modern instrument construction, were universally recognised as so valuable that they were often borrowed and copied by other orchestras for model performances. (Die von seiner Hand herrührenden Vortragsbezeichnungen und Ergänzungen in den einzelnen Orchesterstimmen, die theils ein genaueres Zusammenspiel der Geiger bezwecken, theils (wie in den Blasinstrumenten) den Fortschritten der modernen Instrumentenbaukunst entsprechen sollten, waren allgemein als so wertvolle anerkannt, dass sie von andern Orchestern für Musteraufführungen häufig entleihen und copirt wurden.) 

Editions

Anon.: Sonatas in A minor, C minor and E flat major (Nos. 16-18 of Hohe Schule des Violinspiels) (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1868) 

Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No 4 (Peters, 1850. This is the first edition, ed. Siegfried Dehn, with extensive m.s. annotations by David). 

Bach: Cello Suites (arr. violin) (Gustav Heinz, 1866). 

Bach: Flute Sonatas, BWV 1030-5, edited together with F. Hermann. (Peters, c. 1866) 

Bach: Sonatas and Partitas, BWV 1001-6 (Kistner, 1843). 

Bach: Terzette (arrangements of 3-part inventions) (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874). 

Bach: Violin Concerto, BWV 1041 (Rieter-Biedermann, 1864). 

Bach: Violin Concertos in D minor and G minor (reconstructions from harpsichord concertos BWV 1052 and 1056) (Rieter-Biederman, 1872). 

Bach: Violin Duo (Senff, 1866). 

Beethoven: Cello sonatas, arr. for violin and piano (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1872). 

Beethoven; Piano Trios, complete (C.F. Peters, 1868). 

Beethoven: Romance, Op. 40 (C.F. Peters, c.1858) not a printed annotated edition, but with MS annotations by David. 

Beethoven: String Quartets, complete (C.F. Peters, c.1867). 

Beethoven: String Trios (C.F. Peters, c. 1868 - rev. edition, c. 1903). 

Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1864) - also David/Eibenschütz (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1886) and David's copy, with his m.s. annotations, of the original Haslinger edition, in an 1827 reprint. 

Beethoven: Violin and Piano Sonatas, complete (C.F. Peters, 1868, plus three further versions). 

Chopin: Cello Sonata, Op. 65, arr. violin and piano (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1850). 

Chopin: Nocturnes (re-arrangement for violin and piano of cello arrangement)(Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874). 

Chopin: Trio, Op. 8 (Kistner, 1872). 

Chopin: 8 valses, arr. violin and piano (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1870). 

David: Gondellied (Kistner, 1850). 

David: Introduction and Variations on "Je suis le petit tombour", Op. 5 (Kistner, 1836). 

David: Introduction and Variations, Op. 6 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1838). 

David: Introduction and Variations, Op. 15 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1842). 

David: Violin Concerto No. 5, Op. 35 David/Eibenschutz (Breitkopf u. Härtel 1885 - from first edition of 1855). 

David: Violinschule (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1863). 

David: See also Hohe Schule des Violinspiels (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1867-8) and Vorstudien zur Hohe Schule des Violinspiels (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1875) - anthologies of violin music from the 17th and 18th centuries. 

Ernst: Violin Concerto, Op. 23 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1865). 

Fiorillo: 36 Etudes (Senff, 1854). 

Gaviniés: Etuden (Senff, c. 1865). 

Haydn: Piano Trios, complete (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1856). 

Haydn: String Quartets, Op 20 No 4, Op 33 Nos 2 & 3, Op 54 No 1, Op 64 Nos 3, 4, & 5, Op 74 No 3, Op 76 Nos 1-5, Op 77 Nos 1 & 2 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1867-8; collected edition, 1879). 

Kreutzer: 40 Etuden (Senff, 1852). 

Kreutzer: Concerto No 5 (David/Hermann, André, 1879). 

Kreutzer: Concerto No 7 (David/Hermann, André, 1879). Kreutzer: Concerto No 10 (David/Hermann, André, 1895). 

Kreutzer: Concertos Nos 13, 14, 18, 19 (Senff, 1856). Lipinski: "Military" Concerto, Op 21 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1865); rev. edition - David/Eibenschütz - Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1885). 

Mendelssohn: String Quintet, Op 18 (Simrock, 1833) not a printed annotated edition, but with MS annotations by David. 

Mendelssohn: String Quartets, Op 12, 13, and 44 nos. 1-3 (various first editions) - not a printed annotated edition, but with MS annotations by David. 

Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto, Op 64 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1865). 

Mendelssohn: Duo for violin and piano (not traced: is this the Op 4 Sonata?) (Simrock, 1870). 

Mendelssohn: Lied ohne Worte, Op. 109 (cello part arr. for violin) (Senff, 1868). 

Mendelssohn: Violin and Piano Sonata, Op. 45 (arr. from cello sonata) (Kistner, 1839). 

Mendelssohn: Violin and Piano Sonata, Op. 58 (arr. from cello sonata) (Kinstner, 1844). 

Moscheles: Violin and Piano Sonata (Kistner, date unknown). 

Mozart: Sonata K448 (arr. for 2 violin of 2-piano sonata) (G. Heinz, 1870). 

Mozart: Piano Trios, K254, 496, 498, 502, 542, 548, 564 (C.F. Peters, 1869). 

Mozart: 10 String Quartets (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1856-7)- Six of these issued by Augener (1925 and 1936). 

Mozart: String Quintets (Breitkopf u. Hartel, separate vols. 1861; issued as a set, 1862). 

Mozart: Violin Concerto (unidentified) (André, 1866; Forberg, 1874). 

Mozart: Violin Concerto, K218 (André, 1865) - also Hans Sitt revision (André, date unknown). 

Mozart: Violin and Piano Sonatas - issued by Breitkopf u. Härtel in 7 vols (1965-6), then a collected edition (1867). 

Mozart: Duos for Violin and Viola (Senff, 1866) also David's personal copy with his numerous MS annotations 

Nardini: Sonata in B flat (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1867, another edition, 1888) (The Nardini sonata in the Hohe Schule is in D). 

Paganini: Caprices, Op 1 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1854/1875). 

Paganini: Variations (?) (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874). 

Paganini: Concerto No 1 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874).

Paganini: Concerto No 2 (Breitkopf? date unknown). 

Paganini: Carnevale di Venezia, Op 10 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874). 

Paganini: Moto perpetuo, Op 11 (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874). 

Paganini: Le Streghe, Op 8 (Breitkopf u. Hartel, 1874). Paganini: Violin Sonata (?) (Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1874).

Pleyel: Duos, Op 48 (C.F. Peters, 1873). 

Pleyel: Duos, Op 8 (C.F. Peters, 1872) 

Raff: Violin and Piano Sonata No 1 (Schuberth, 1869 - no copy yet found). 

Raff: Violin and Piano Sonata No 2 (Schuberth, 1870). 

Rode: Air varié, Op 10 (Senff, 1863). 

Rode: Caprices (C.F. Peters, 1853 - rev. edtions, also Peters, dated 1891). 

Rode: Concerto No 4 (David/Hermann; André, 1879). 

Rode: Concerto No 6 (David/Hermann; C.F. Peters, c. 1872). 

Rode: Concertos Nos 4, 6, 7, 8 (Senff, 1856). 

Rust: Two Violin Sonatas (C.F. Peters, 1866). 

Schubert: Piano Trios (C.F. Peters, c. 1868). 

Schubert: String Quartet, D810 (Senff, 1868). 

Schubert: String Quartets, D87, 94, 112, 173, 353, 703, 804, 810, 887 (C.F. Peters, 1871). 

Schubert: String Quintet, D956 (C.F. Peters, c. 1895 - no earlier publication found). 

Schubert: Violin and Piano Duos, D895, 934, 802, 574 (C.F. Peters, date unknown). 

Schubert: Violin and Piano Sonatinas (Sonatas), D384, 385, 408 (C.F. Peters, 1882 - not the first engraving). 

Spohr: Duos Op 3, 9, 39, 67, 148, 150 153 (all C.F. Peters, 1872). 

Spohr: Violin Concerto No 2, Op 2 C.F. Peters, 1861 - also issued by Schirmer, 1896, Litolff, date unknown, and a David/Hermann edition, Peters, date unknown). 

Spohr: Violin Concerto No 6, Op 28 (C.F. Peters, 1872). 

Spohr: Violin Concerto No 7, Op 38 (C.F. Peters, 1861 - also David/Hermann, Peters 1880). 

Spohr: Violin Concerto No 8, Op 47 (C.F. Peters, 1861 - also Litolff, date unknown, and David/Hermann, Peters c. 1879). 

Spohr: Violin Concerto No 9, Op 55 (David/Hermann - Peters, 1889; also copy of first edition of 1820, with Ferdinand David's MS annotations). 

Spohr: Violin Concerto No 11, Op 70 (C.F. Peters, 1864 - also David/Hermann, Peters, 1880). 

Tartini: L'Arte del arco (André, 1864). 

Tartini: Duo (violin and bass?) (André, 1864). 

Tartini: "Devil's Trill" Sonata (not David's edtion, but with his MS annotations and cadenza). (Various: editions of violin sonatas, ed. David/Hermann - Peters, date unknown). 

Viotti: Concerto (unspecified) (Senff, 1856 - also David/R. Hofman, Senff, 1902 - is this the same work?) 

Viotti: Concertos Nos 22, 23, 28, 29 (Senff, 1856). Viotti: Violin duos, Op 19 (Senff, 1859). 

Viotti: Violin duos, Op 9 & 28 (Senff, 1873). 

Viotti: Violin duos (1800 editions, with Ferdinand David's m.s. annotations). 

Vitali: Chaconne. As well as the edition published in the Hohe Schule, a reprint from Augener (date unknown), David/Charlier edition (Breitkopf u. Härtel, date unknown), also revisions by Hermann, Emil Kross, Henri Petri and Schradieck. 

Volkmann: String Quartet, Op 9 (original edition, by Breitkopf und Härtel, Leipzig with Ferdinand David's MS annotations. 

Volkmann: String Quartet, Op 14 (original edition, by C.A. Spina, Vienna, with Ferdinand David's MS annotations. Weber: Sonatas for violin and piano (C.F. Peters, 1869). 

[C. B.]